During WWII, Frank Krandel of Carrick, Pennsylvania served with the 1st Army from 1942-1946. At times he was a mechanic, sometimes a military police officer, or he did whatever job was required by the 438th Antiaircraft Artillery Automatic Weapons Battalion.

As part of the Spearhead Division, named for its leading role in the Allied march from Normandy to Germany, the 438th encountered tremendous experiences, including the Battle of the Bulge and the liberation of the Nordausen concentration camps.

The Route of the Question Mark – Audacia Vincit, written in 1945 by the actual command of the 438th, is a remarkably detailed and rare first-hand account of their experiences.

Recorded February 23, 2017 at Oakleaf Personal Care Home in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Interviewer: Ben Wright. Special Thanks: The Krandel Family, Ben Wright, Oakleaf Personal Care Home. Audiography: Kevin Farkas, Ben Wright. Videography: Kevin Farkas. Media: National Archives, The Route of the Question Mark (book). A production of the Veterans Breakfast Club/Veteran Voices of Pittsburgh Oral History Project. ©Veterans Breakfast Club. All Rights Reserved.